The NHS provides a good definition of advocacy: If you find it difficult to understand your care and support or find it hard speak up, there are people who can act as a spokesperson for you. Parents may feel guilt about their child’s condition and the extra care they have to provide can leave them feeling overwhelmed and exhausted. ensuring that an individual has understood what you have said, Genetic/inherited conditions passed down from previous generations of the same family, The mother becoming ill or drinking excessive alcohol during pregnancy, Birth complications such as the child having an oxygen deficiency in the brain or head trauma during birth, Contact with damaging materials such as radiation, L’Arche communities where people with and without learning disabilities could live together, Campaigns on behalf of people with learning disabilities to improve conditions and services, most notably by Lord Rix, it is made clear that the individual may require additional support, understanding or accommodations, it can promote social inclusion as some people are genuinely interested about how people are different from one another, it is required to fulfill some eligibility criteria such as benefit claims, it is efficient in communication when talking about groups of similar individuals – for example it is far easier to use the term ‘learning disability’ than to refer to a list of conditions, symptoms or cognitive abilities, it helps individuals with similar issues and challenges come together and form a group identity, it helps organisations to do things that could benefit individuals with learning disabilities such as lawmakers or research groups, it does not promote the identity and strengths of each individual as labels are, inherently, broad and wide-ranging, it can cause individuals to be singled-out, ridiculed, harassed and bullied, it can cause individuals with learning disabilities thinking less of themselves and result in a lowered self-worth, self-esteem and self-confidence, it can restrict expectations and put limits on an individual that may not have otherwise existed. The Human Rights Act set out the basic rights that everybody can expect, the Equality Act made it illegal to discriminate against minority groups and the Care Act gave individuals more choice in their care packages leading to increased independence. balance citizens’ rights and responsibilities. It advocates that both the medical and social models are appropriate, but neither is sufficient on its own to explain the complex nature of one’s health. Pay attention to temperature, lighting seating etc. Registered charities with an annual income over £10,000 must provide annual information to the Commission. As institutions closed and more individuals with learning disabilities merged with ‘mainstream’ communities, many services and groups catered specifically for these people. Failure to do so can leave services antiquated and put the most vulnerable people in our society at risk. Empowerment means helping an individual to become more independent and have more control over their lives, especially the support they receive. The Human Rights Act 1998 and Equality Act 2010 reinforced this. It may be that they have been through a similar situation and have a wider understanding of it, especially about how it affects the particular individual personally, and so are able to offer guidance and support. Up until as recently as the 1970s, large numbers of individuals with learning disabilities were confined to institutions. Furthermore, there was no distinction made between people with learning disabilities, people with mental health conditions and criminals, all being viewed as a drain on society and forced to live together. The lives of individuals with learning disabilities has steadily improved over time in several areas. Instructed advocacy is when an individual tells their advocate what they would like them to say and do. This service is usually paid for by the individual. We understand that social exclusion can happen when people or areas suffer from a combination of linked problems such as unemployment, discrimination, poor skills, low incomes, poor housing, high crime, bad health and family breakdown. It usually results from positive action taken to change the circumstances and habits that lead, or have led, to social exclusion. This is professional advocacy law services represented by legally qualified solicitors/lawyers/barristers. check understanding so that you can promote communication with individuals with learning disabilities. Some countries such as Sweden practiced compulsory sterilisation. The first Camphill Community was formed in 1940, which took in children with disabilities and provided education to them including skills like basket weaving and baking. I may earn commissions from qualifying purchases from Amazon. During verbal communication with individuals with learning disabilities there are several things you may need to consider: Not all communication is verbal and some individuals with learning disabilities can only communicate via non-verbal means. The advocate will be trained to use different techniques to try and find out what the individual wants and, if unable to do so, will make decisions on behalf of the individual that are in their best interests. Struggling financially to make ends meet and having limited options for improving your financial situation; Feeling socially isolated or lonely, having few friends and limited opportunities to meet new people or  make new relationships; Having limited access to community resources such as health, educational and recreational services; Having no 'voice' and influence over decisions that affect your life. Involving older people at all levels of service planning and delivery is an important part of getting it right. Encouraging them to take an active role in their support. The media with its wide-reaching audience also has a part to play in promoting positive attitudes towards people with learning disabilities. In 1948, the NHS took control of institutions and they became hospitals, however the poor treatment of patients continued. Sadly, it was rarely enforced and the disabled register was inaccurate. Essentially, you should show respect to the individuals that you communicate with by being open and honest, speaking to them as an adult and conveying your message in a way that they can process and understand. After giving an individual some information, it is a good idea to ask them if they have understood what you are saying. Finally, education has a large part to play in promoting positive attitudes as it pushes people to think about and try to understand things from another’s point of view. Therefore, it is important that the pedagogical strategies we employ in the classroom reflect an understanding of social identity development so that we can anticipate the tensions that might occur in the classroom and be proactive about them’ (Ambrose et. The Commission provides a wide range of advice and guidance to charities and their trustees, and can often help with problems. Early institutional life often meant that men and women with learning disabilities were segregated and did not have the opportunity to form intimate relationships with one another. It also means you’re in a position to report any issues to management (especially if the discriminated person doesn’t … This may be because the individual is unable to express their views or feels that their voice is not being heard. This is the desired outcome for most people and training can be provided to help individuals with learning disabilities gain the skills they need to self-advocate. They have a right to choose what they eat and when, how they dress and when. The Social Care Institute for Excellence also contributes by co-producing, sharing and supporting best knowledge and evidence of working practice. During the 1950’s, research suggested that individuals with learning disabilities had more ability than had previously been thought and would be able to live successfully and independently in the community. Twenty men and six women were involved aged 20-65, either from independent living units or group homes. If somebody appears to require care, the local authority must carry out an assessment focusing on their individual needs, outcomes and wellbeing and involve the person in the process (person-centred planning). With increasing severity of learning disability, the likelihood of finding a cause increases, with at least 80% of severe cases having some evidence of organic brain damage or disease. Consequently, because the changes are relatively recent (within some peoples lifetimes) some people’s attitudes towards individuals with learning disabilities may be outdated. It was only when people began to move out of institutions and into communities that the chance to learn vocational skills and find employment became possible. For individuals that have difficulty communicating verbally, you could use communication aids such as flashcards with pictures of meals on them. Research demonstrates participating in society and having people you can rely on are key determinants of health and wellbeing and one of the most powerful predictors of positive outcomes following exposure to trauma. At the top of the hierarchy of external agencies that have a role in changing attitudes, policy and practice is the government. These are the primary laws that directly relate to the freedoms and rights of individuals, however there is additional legislation that indirectly affects this including: Policies that promote human rights, inclusion, equal life chances and citizenship of individuals with learning disabilities: When compared to the time before the legislation and policies listed above were introduced, we can surmise that the daily experiences of individuals with learning disabilities and their families have been positively and significantly influenced. In fact, the primary reason for people being moved to institutions was because they were thought to be unable to contribute to society in a meaningful way. To support greater inclusivity, equality and diversity you need to know how to spot when it isn’t happening. In the eyes of the law, all individuals have the same fundamental rights and freedoms as set out by the Human Rights Act 1998. 1 1A Assist a person with disability to identify strengths, preferences and ... support. 9 What social inclusion means in Oxfordshire In addition, the attitudes of people of the time judged individuals with learning disabilities to be asexual. Understand the importance of risk taking in everyday life 2. The Human Rights Act 1998 sets out the fundamental rights and liberties that all residents of the UK are entitled to. The 50% proportion of learning disabilities with unknown cause has been floating around the Internet for a long time and is often accepted as an answer for the Level 2 Diploma but we have been unable to find the original source for this figure – do let us know if you can direct us to it. Policies are rules and guidelines that have been created by your organisation or industry bodies to ensure that workers behave and do their jobs in their correct way. The Human Rights Act, Equality Act and Care Act have helped people to understand that disability does not mean an individual has any less rights than anybody else and that it is unlawful to discriminate on this basis. These are appointed by the local authority when individual is unable to make their own decisions and they have no family or friends that can support them. Sentence structure – try to keep your sentences short using 1-3 keywords, Tone of voice – keep your tone of voice in line with what you are saying, try to sound relaxed and not upset, angry or patronising, Body language – keep body language in line with what you are saying, Facial expressions – keep facial expressions in line with what you are saying, Eye contact – some individuals prefer eye contact whilst it makes others feel uncomfortable, Direction – speak directly to the individual and not to their family or support staff, Ask open questions – questions that have a yes/no answer can often result in an automatic response. Person-centred approach • Recognising individuality . Examples include pointing, waving and giving the ‘thumbs-up’, Makaton – some individuals use Makaton sign language to communicate which is a set of universally-understood gestures, Leading – an individual may try to make themselves understood by leading you somewhere to show you something. It usually results from positive action taken to change the circumstances and habits that lead, or have led, to social exclusion. This type of advocacy can be limited in use as a friend of family member may have a conflict of interest. Our relationships with family and friends define and shape who we are; Family and friends provide all sorts of help and support, from small to big things; Having positive relationships with family and friends makes us happier and healthier; Much of what we know about the world, we learn from our family and friends; Family and friends provide us with 'social capital' – material and non-material resources that we can use to achieve things we cannot achieve on our own; Through existing friends, we can get to meet new friends; a The 21st century has seen a shift in attitudes towards people with learning disabilities as these individuals are now much better integrated into society. If you do not comply with policies, you may leave yourself open to disciplinary action or even litigation (as many policies are written to ensure that workers comply with the law). McConkey 207 Journal of Intellectual Disability Research doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2788.2006.00858.x pp – Variations in the social inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities in supported living schemes and However, it is only currently available in print format, with the audio book not being released for another four weeks, resulting in the individual being unable to participate. This is where an individual is able to represent themselves by assessing and making their own decisions and ensuring their voice is heard. being open to different types of families – they can be small or large, may or may not be biologically related, and may include several generations. It is about enabling people or communities to fully participate in society. In the 1930s there was a campaign for voluntary sterilisation for people with learning disabilities, which was also a recommendation of the the Brock Report. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, individuals with learning disabilities either lived with family or were forced to live in institutions and asylums, segregated from mainstream communities. The most important thing is to ensure that the individual feels involved in the process. Leading by example shows others the correct attitude to have and helps them to emulate good practice. Promoting the inclusion of people with disabilities is a key goal of the National Disability Authority and achieving this requires an array of social policies and programmes working coherently to respond to and support the person experiencing disability across their lifespan. By regularly and proactively seeking verification and clarification during conversations, you can minimise misunderstandings (which is easier than mitigating misunderstandings in the future!). Essentially, social inclusion means giving everyone the same opportunities to participate in society paying special attention to those that may be disadvantaged from doing so. A learning disability occurs when the brain is still developing, either before birth (prenatally), during birth or during early childhood. Integration of people with learning disabilities into the wider community can help create more understanding between individuals and quash popular misconceptions. Legislation is the collection of laws that have been made official by parliament and must be followed. Asking open-ended questions ensures the individual is listening and understands you, Be patient – give the individual plenty of time to absorb what you are saying and time to respond, Listen – communication is a two-way process so ensure that you actively listen to what the individual says to you, Facial expressions – observing an individual’s face can give visual cues about how they are feeling and if they are understanding you, Gestures – some individuals will use gestures to communicate. Siblings may feel pushed out and jealous that their brother/sister appears to receive more attention than they do and not understand the reasons why. Examples of social inclusion for people with learning disabilities could include lack of finances, lack of suitable transport, lack of proper support or institutionalisation. They have the right to close down services that are not up to scratch. Working with individuals with learning disabilities often means adapting our communication techniques in a way that meets their particular needs to ensure that we are understood. Popular opinions were that people with learning disabilities did not have the desire to engage in sexual relationships or were perverse or were innocent and vulnerable and could not consent. Group advocacy is when several people with similar issues unite to represent one another and work towards a common goal and speak out collectively. Individuals with learning disabilities often require far more support than those that don’t and may never be fully independent. Age-appropriate language means using words that are suitable for a particular age group. For me as a trainer, I need to challenge any abuse and explain why it is wrong. Explain the consequences of social exclusion for: >Individuals – >Communities – 4. The alternative was being cared for at home by family but there was virtually no support provision for families that chose to do this. Other charities such as Mencap and Scope have done a lot of lobbying on behalf of individuals with learning disabilities to help change attitudes and policy. The medical model of disability would say that the barrier to participation is the individual’s learning disability. Assignment Help >> Other Subject Support Individuals to be Part of a CommunityLearning outcomes1 Understand how communities can support social Increased exposure and communication between different groups of people can create more tolerance, empathy and understanding. This includes (amongst others) the right to life, the right to a fair trial and the freedom from slavery and forced labour. Social inclusion is defined by the Charity Commission as: Social inclusion is often used to describe the opposite effect to social exclusion. Six ways to support diversity and inclusion in the workplace 1. We should be aware of non-verbal methods that people use to communicate and adapt ourselves accordingly. Whilst it can be useful at times, there could be conflicts of interest so self advocacy or independent advocacy are always preferred. 1.1 Identify legislation and policies that are designed to promote the human rights, inclusion, equal life chances and citizenship of individuals with learning disabilities, 1.2 Explain how this legislation and policies influence the day to day experiences of individuals with learning disabilities and their families, 2.1 Explain what is meant by ‘learning disability’, 2.2 Give examples of causes of learning disabilities, 2.3 Describe the medical and social models of disability, 2.4 State the approximate proportion of individuals with a learning disability for whom the cause is ‘not known’, 2.5 Describe the possible impact on a family of having a member with a learning disability, 3.1 Explain the types of services that have been provided for individuals with learning disabilities over time, 3.2 Describe how past ways of working may affect present services, 3.3 Identify some of the key changes in the following areas of the lives of individuals who have learning disabilities: a) where people live b) daytime activities c) employment d) sexual relationships and parenthood e) the provision of healthcare, 4.1 Explain the meaning of the term ‘social inclusion’, 4.2 Explain the meaning of the term ‘advocacy’, 4.4 Describe ways to build empowerment and active participation into everyday support with individuals with learning disabilities, 5.1 Explain how attitudes are changing in relation to individuals with learning disabilities, 5.2 Give examples of positive and negative aspects of being labelled as having a learning disability, 5.3 Describe steps that can be taken to promote positive attitudes towards individuals with learning disabilities and their family carers, 5.4 Explain the roles of external agencies and others in changing attitudes, policy and practice, 6.1 Identify ways of adapting each of the following when communicating with individuals who have learning disabilities a) verbal communication b) non-verbal communication, 6.2 Explain why it is important to use language that is both ‘age appropriate’ and ‘ability appropriate’ when communicating with individuals with learning disabilities. By now, individuals with learning disabilities were being listened to more and given more respect and choice with their healthcare options. Maintaining contact with family and friends, participating in cultural and community activities and using skills all contribute to social inclusion. For example, a young adult may (in an appropriate setting) want to discuss sex or sexuality. The negative aspects of using the label ‘learning disability’ are: Positive attitudes towards individuals can be promoted using a variety of strategies. Care Quality Commission (CQC) Regulations and Fundamental Standards set out the standards of care that all care providers must not fall below. Environment – as much as possible, ensure that you are communicating in a comfortable setting. Educate employees by helping them to understand how individuals are impacted by unconscious bias, and what actions continue to reinforce unconscious bias. There are a number of pieces of legislation and policies that have been designed for people with learning disabilities to promote: Firstly, the Equality Act 2010 protects individuals from discrimination, harassment and victimisation in society and supersedes previous anti-discrimination such as the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 and Race Relations Act 1976. Understand the legal and policy framework underpinning an individual’s right to make decisions and take risks 4. Standard 9: Awareness of Mental Health, Dementia and Learning Disabilities, Standard 15: Infection Prevention and Control, Implement Person-Centred Approaches in Care Settings, Safeguarding and Protection in Care Settings, Health, Safety and Well-Being in Care Settings, Understand the Context of Supporting Individuals with Learning Disabilities, Promote Personal Development in Care Settings, Promote Equality and Inclusion in Care Settings, Promote Person-Centred Approaches in Care Settings, Promote Health, Safety and Wellbeing in Care Settings, Promote Effective Handling of Information in Care Settings, Identify legislation and policies that are designed to promote the human rights, inclusion, equal life chances and citizenship of individuals with learning disabilities, Explain how this legislation and policies influence the day to day experiences of individuals with learning disabilities and their families, Explain what is meant by ‘learning disability’, Give examples of causes of learning disabilities, Describe the medical and social models of disability, State the approximate proportion of individuals with a learning disability for whom the cause is ‘not known’, Describe the possible impact on a family of having a member with a learning disability, Explain the types of services that have been provided for individuals with learning disabilities over time, Describe how past ways of working may affect present services, Identify some of the key changes in the following areas of the lives of individuals who have learning disabilities: a) where people live b) daytime activities c) employment d) sexual relationships and parenthood e) the provision of healthcare, Explain the meaning of the term ‘social inclusion’, Explain the meaning of the term ‘advocacy’, Describe ways to build empowerment and active participation into everyday support with individuals with learning disabilities, Explain how attitudes are changing in relation to individuals with learning disabilities, Give examples of positive and negative aspects of being labelled as having a learning disability, Describe steps that can be taken to promote positive attitudes towards individuals with learning disabilities and their family carers, Explain the roles of external agencies and others in changing attitudes, policy and practice, Identify ways of adapting each of the following when communicating with individuals who have learning disabilities a) verbal communication b) non-verbal communication, Explain why it is important to use language that is both ‘age appropriate’ and ‘ability appropriate’ when communicating with individuals with learning disabilities. This includes the right to life, which means everyone has the right to lifesaving and life-prolonging medication even if they have severe or profound learning disabilities. Finding innovative ways to support them. However, this is not always possible and advocacy services still have an important role to play. Even mothers with illegitimate children (and children born within the institution’s walls) had no choice but to spend their lives institutionalised. I think I understand you…blah blah blah…is that correct. The attitude of the time was to keep these individuals segregated from the general population and those that did live in local communities were often treated with pity or disdain and suffered harassment and abuse. Social inclusion Social inclusion could be seen as an ideal that modern society aspires to, however it has been considered as a difficult concept to define, which may be due in part to the multifaceted nature of the reasons why individuals are excluded from society (Wilcock 2006). Many children with learning disabilities now attend mainstream schools, which will result in future generations having a better understanding of the differences between individuals. It also opens opportunities to make and share experiences with others in the local community that face similar challenges. Active participation means supporting the individual to be engaged in their day to day life and their support rather than a passive receiver. Providing person-centred active support is as easy as standing behind your client when they pay for items to make them feel at ease and in control. The National Health Service and Community Care Act 1990 gave individuals with learning disabilities more control over where they lived by introducing Direct Payments. The individual should remain at the heart of the advocacy service and the advocate should always act in their best interests. The conditions of residential hospitals were also criticised with reports of isolated locations with visits being discouraged, poorly trained staff, lack of co-ordination and patients having little to no belongings. An important part of effective communication is ensuring that an individual has understood what you have said to them. In fact, one of the benefits of the evolution of services is that we now understand that we should never rest on our laurels and should strive for continuous improvement backed by research. Building awareness is a first step towards real change. They eat and when an foremost, health professionals should display a modern and positive attitude towards people learning. 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