According to some historians, “The war against the Herero and Nama was the first in which German imperialism resorted to methods of genocide.” Roughly 80,000 Herero lived in German South-West Africa at the beginning of Germany’s colonial rule over the area, while after their revolt was defeated, they numbered approximately 15,000. Appendix Section 6 also uses qualitative evidence to illustrate the difficulty in obtaining reliable information on ethnic groups’ characteristics – suggesting that bargains over indirect rule were hampered by a lack of information. The two parameters y,ϴ represent the effects of violent resistance and the grid cell’s territorial control value for state expansion. As Bismarck was converted to the colonial idea by 1884, he favored “chartered company” land management rather than establishment of colonial government due to financial considerations. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. 1981. 16 Herbst 2000. Wimmelbrücker, Ludger. First, due to its own weakness, the colonial state was under high internal pressure to maintain, order and control. Most notably, we exploit information collected by Nigmann that documents the specific rationale for the creation of thirty-five of the eighty-one stations in our study period.103 This information indicates the prime reason as the pacification of specific territories and people. This indicates that there was much less choice in decisions about where to locate rubber production; this industry remained largely unaffected by the political imperatives gov- erning German colonial state-building efforts. Münster: LIT Verlag. Given the non-linear nature of the model specification, it is difficult to judge the substantive, significance of each of the variables with respect to the probability of station presence. Mamdani, Mahmood. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press. 1994. Simulations were based on estimates from Model 1 in Table 1. We focus on two of these products, rubber and cotton, as their production experienced the highest increases during the period under investigation – mainly, but not exclusively, because of the tremendous increase in German demand for these products.82 To measure the local extractive potential for rubber and cotton production, we construct a measure of soil suitability for each product. We control for two features of local ethnic groups in our models: ethnic group size and integration into the German military. Ein Land wird gewaltsam in Besitz genommen. Hence, we rely on a general indicator of soil suitability for agriculture from the Harmonized World Soil Database.86 We also added data on the yearly world market price of cotton and rubber.87 The extractive potential of each product is modeled via the soil quality measures, world market prices and their respective interaction terms. Including a full set of grid-cell fixed effects similarly diminishes the statistical significance of the Battle Index variable, but the coefficient retains its positive sign. African Affairs XXXVI (Supplement CXLV):3–29. We then standardize both variables and calculate a simple average. Germany did not attempt to re-mold its colonial subjects in the German image in the way that the French and the British tried to mold their subjects in their image. 95 Gennaoili and Rainer 2007; Nunn 2008. It is related to the Age of Imperialism and the expansion of the European empires in the 19th century. In this analysis we can, TABLE 2 Substantive Effect Comparison: 1 SD Increase at the Median, Variable Estimated Change in P (Station) 95% CI, Battle Index, 1-yr lag +6.9% [5.6%, 8.2%] Territorial Control Value, 1yr lag +4.5% [3.0%, 5.9%] Road Length +5.3% [3.9%, 6.7%] Number of Troops, 1889 −6.9% [5.6%, 8.3%] Border Distance +6.4% [5.2%, 7.6%] Population Density +6.0% [4.9%, 7.1%]. Imperialism in Africa is an important topic in world history. Whichever your reason may is, it is valid! In conclusion of his studies he advocated genocide of alleged “inferior races” stating that “whoever thinks thoroughly the notion of race, can not arrive at a different conclusion.” Fischer’s torment of the children was part of a wider history of abusing Africans for experiments, and echoed earlier actions by German anthropologists who stole skeletons and bodies from African graveyards and took them to Europe for research or sale. 2a. 1980. This suggests a model of developing colonial state institutions in concentric circles around administrative capitals. In most colonies, actual penetration of the territory was extremely limited before the Berlin Conference, when metropolitan states demarcated and claimed vast territories in the course of only a few years.28 Until the beginning of WWI, many colonial states were preoccupied with establishing a basic coercive apparatus and trying to fulfill the obligation of ‘effective occupation’ emanating from the Berlin Conference29 and preparing the ground for the effective extraction of natural resources. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions. A grid cell at the minimum value of the Battle Index variable (that is, with no violent clashes or far from major battles in the preceding year) has an approximate probability of receiving a station of 3.8 per cent. Our findings contribute to this research by providing evidence of the factors that drove specific instances of rudimentary state building. B.J.Pol.S. 48 Kilingray 1986. Ehrhardt, Karl. 1999. 1 decade ago. Bückendorf, Jutta. His account of the German military in the colony contains detailed information on the establishment of German stations and violent military encounters.72. In remote areas with low population density, the costs of controlling large territories often exceeded the marginal revenues of trade and taxation. We add to this work by narrowing our analytical focus to a specific phase of state building: an early and transitional phase in which states face the challenge of establishing authority over newly claimed territories with very limited resources at their disposal. We are grateful for the invaluable feedback of Marcus Kurtz, Amanda Robinson, Rick Herrmann, Alex Lee, Steven Wilkinson, Robert Woodberry, Roberto Foa, panel participants at APSA 2014 and 2015, three anonymous reviewers, and Sona Golder as the responsible editor at BJPS. Even stronger than the effect of major battles, increasing the standardized Territorial Control Value from the minimum to the maximum implies a change in the expected probability of a station from roughly 2 to 88 per cent. The Autonomous Power of the State: Its Origins, Mechanisms and Results. Die Kolonie Deutsch-. Tilly, conceptualizes the elimination of internal rivals as a key dynamic of state formation in Western Europe.17 This process of ‘state making’ led to the monopolization of power and created incentives for extraction.18 Migdal theorized state penetration as a conflict over social order and control. Appendix Section 8 includes results for models that exclude all post-treatment variables. Bismarck even tried to give German South-West Africa away to the British. Higher population density might have been associated with more indirect or extractive forms of rule.88, Finally, we consider additional logistical factors. We use a simple and intuitive definition for the first: the process of creating new state institutions or strengthening existing ones (Fukuyama 2004). Gerring, John, Daniel Ziblatt, Johan Van Gorp, and Julián Arévalo. According to such a perspective, we expect state presence to be particularly strong near international borders. Political dynamics – which are often characterized by reactive, on-the-ground decision making rather than structural geographic, demographic or economic factors – appear to be the primary catalyst for the sub- national expansion of state institutions. We believe that this context of uncertainty led to the prioritization of actual experiences over, theoretical knowledge. To measure precipitation and average temperature, we use geo-referenced information from the WorldClim project (1950–2000), validated by historical sources (see the Appendix for details). Finally, we further explore why extractive potential had so little effect on the state-building, strategy of the German colonial administration. Soon after, conflicts between the German colonists and the Herero herdsmen began. German Imperialism Timeline created by yanissa082. 50 E.g., Levi 1989. Yet we believe it is necessary to expand this narrow focus in the existing literature by emphasizing the political dynamics of colonial rule. In most of the hinterland, however, the company had little impact on the local population, (Pesek 2005). 103 Nigmann 1911. 75 Koponen 1995. 2005. The following subsections introduce our theoretical argument. 32 E.g. Koloniale Herrschaft: zur soziologischen Theorie der Staatsentstehung am. Detailed tables and results are available in the Appendix. 49 We provide an operationalization and illustration of this variable in the empirical section. Germany lost control when World War I began and its colonies were seized by its enemies in the first weeks of the war. During the following years, the borders of German East Africa were defined through, interactions with neighboring European colonial powers and DOAG, invigorated by the imperial government’s support. 63 Koponen 1995. Journal of Black Studies 1992 23: 2, 235-246 Download Citation. 2001. These imperatives were particularly dominant during the late nineteenth century, when European powers were in heightened competition with each other, trying to satiate their hunger for the expansion of their empires. We then re-estimate our main models, controlling for region fixed effects. 70 Koponen 1995, 241. Gwassa, Gilbert Clement Kamana. Lankina, Tomila, and Lullit Getachew. In 2004, the German government recognized and apologized for the events, but ruled out financial compensation for the victims’ descendants. Hamburg: Hammerich & Lesser. Their annexation and control of South West Africa was eased by the intense... Major Theodor Leutwein, governor of the colony in 1894–1904, suppressed insurrections of the Khoekhoe (1894) and of the Hereros (1896). We calculated the mean elevation per grid using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission 1 km resolution data. Germany was also active in the Pacific, annexing a series of islands that would be called Figure 1 depicts the location of German stations at the outset of colonial rule (1890) and at the end of our study period (1909). However, we argue and show that the driving rationale of the German colonial administration in East Africa was the establishment of political stability and territorial control. Again, this does not affect our main findings. German Confederation In 1815, the Congress of Vienna created the German Confederation, which was a group of states that included Prussia. Print; Events. Germany did not have her colonies for long and they quickly came under control of the British or other powers. 1985. 49, 711–737 Copyright © Cambridge University Press, 2017, The Territorial Expansion of the Colonial State: Evidence from German East Africa 1890–1909, JAN PIERSKALLA, ALEXANDER DE JUAN AND MAX MONTGOMERY*. You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. ... German colonization of Africa - Duration: 3:05. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Many Germans in the late 19th century viewed colonial acquisitions as a true indication of nationhood. The ‘hegemony imperative’21 is the primary driving force, either to prepare the ground for more far-reaching state activities or because the territorial occupation had limited objectives in the first place – to establish tributary relations, bolster a country’s prestige or create a military/political buffer zone. For our second explanatory variable, we are using information provided by Nigmann. Yet these covered fairly large, heterogeneous geographic areas and were altered several times. The Territorial Control Value variable remains statistically significant in the one- and two-year lag models. We focus on this initial state-building phase to formulate a theoretical argument of, sub-national expansion of the state. 2000. When assigning your order, we match the paper subject with the area of specialization of the writer. Contrary to the German. Die geographische Verbreitung der für die Industrie wichtigen Kautschuk- und Guttaperchapflanzen [The Geographic Spread of Rubber and Gutta-percha Trees, which are Important to the German Industry]. Moreover, existing accounts have not discussed how informational constraints shape the strategic decision making of state actors in early phases of state building. During the Herero genocide Eugen Fischer, a German scientist, came to the concentration camps to conduct medical experiments on race, using children of Herero people and mulatto children of Herero women and German men as test subjects. As such, Germany’s colonial endeavor in Africa, like other imperial powers at the time, was motivated less by resource extraction and more by a desire for prestige and competition with other European powers, which led to a very specific scope of objectives in the colony, contrasting with other phases of … Finally, colonial powers engaged in this type of state building during the New Imperialism, period, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. on early colonial state building following the ‘scramble for Africa’. Table 2 displays the marginal effect of a 1-standard-deviation increase in all of the statistically significant variables in the model. Review of Economics and Statistics 94 (2):433–61. Last, we explore this issue further by decomposing the variables into ‘between’ and ‘within’ components and estimate a correlated random-effects model.99 This reveals that both types of variation have a statistically significant and positive effect on station presence for the Territorial Control Value, while Battle Index has a significant effect for its cross-sectional component. Despite lagging the variable, we consider the Battle Index to be partially endogenous, but include it in the model to establish descriptive patterns.81 We then explore the issue of causality in more detail in our robustness checks. Cecil Rhodes and the Cape-Cairo railway project. Deutsch-Ostafrika 1900–1914. A third prominent explanation of state building stresses the role of war and violence. Yet there was no blueprint for establishing territorial domination, and the central administration, which was very understaffed and underfunded, was almost unable to effectively govern the territory. These countries included the Nigeria, Ghana and Uganda. Southeast Asian Studies 39 (4):513–36. Suffolk: James Currey. Secondly, the desire to establish comprehensive territorial control motivated colonial administrators to consistently commit scarce state resources to remote and inaccessible areas of the colony, even though there was no prior indication of economic viability. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe. We argue that extraction was a secondary concern that generally followed the primary imperative of territorial control. In fact, the European powers of the 19th century competed with one another for territory and control over large sections of the African continent. Acemoglu, Daron, and James Robinson. This coding treats stations in Rwanda and Burundi slightly differently, due to their special status. 104 Thies 2007; Tilly 1990. Territorial Expansion of German East Africa 1890–1909 719, the East African territories into the empire and established full-scale colonial rule by assuming all administrative functions and appointing von Wissmann’s troops as a colonial force.62, In the early years of German imperial rule, colonial state building was characterized by substantial internal contradictions.63 The colonial regime’s military superiority allowed it to strengthen its grip over the entire territory despite encountering bitter resistance. Of Rule and Revenue. Considering that the location of a major battle indicates a certain level of resistance in the surrounding areas, we also measure each grid cell’s distance to the nearest major battle. Herbst has highlighted the role of transportation infrastructure and road density as an indicator of the colonial ability to project power.89 It may also be argued that state expansion was driven by the objective of securing the territory against surrounding colonial powers. Tax collection efforts were also often interrupted by violent resistance against the state, hence establishing firm territorial control was a necessary pre-condition for fiscal extraction.101 Economic extraction also followed the presence of German state power, in part because plantation owners were dependent on forced labor. The Long-Term Effects of Africa’s Slave Trades. Again, each of these indicators only provides cross-sectional variation. 3 Cohen, Brown, and Organski 1981. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. We use information from the Military Orientation Book for German East-Africa (Militärisches Orientierungsheft für Deutsch-Ostafrika), which was prepared by the German military and published in 1911. 54 Callahan 2002. His. Weber, Eugen. The horizontal and vertical outer boundaries of the grid net have been defined randomly. State Formation in the Shadow of the Raj: Violence, Warfare and Politics in Colonial Burma. In a period of four years, 1904-1907, approximately 65,000 Herero and 10,000 Nama people perished. Unpacking the Strength of the State: The Utility of State, Infrastructural Power. Together with Theodor Mollison he also experimented upon Herero prisoners. Districts were the only meaningful and formalized administrative units of the German colonial state. When assigning your order, we match the paper subject with the area of specialization of the writer. According to historian William Roger Louis, in the years before the outbreak of the World War, British colonial officers viewed the Germans as deficient in “colonial aptitude,” but “whose colonial administration was nevertheless superior to those of the other European states.” Anglo-German colonial issues in the decade before 1914 were minor, and both the British and German empires took conciliatory attitudes. Killingray, David. 53 Steinmetz 2008. This is important because it captures one main explanation for the occurrence of indirect rule.93 We draw on work by Murdock, Gennaioli and Rainer, and Nunn. 1997. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Murdock provides detailed information on various characteristics of African ethnic groups before European colonization.94 Nunn geo-references this information and provides an index of political centralization, measured as the number of jurisdictional hierarchies beyond the local level, originally constructed by Gennaioli and Rainer.95 We match this information to our grid cells. You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Colonialism and Postcolonial Development: Spanish America in Comparative, Perspective. German colonial societies and the German administration were concerned with the living conditions of German staff and settlers. With a total area of 835,100 km², it was one and a half times the size of the mainland German Empire in Europe at the time. The main countries involved in the imperialism in Africa were the French, German, and Great Britain. Fukuyama, Francis. Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? The German administration claimed most parts of the territory early on. Today, the East African state of Tanzania is renowned for wildlife preserves such as the Serengeti National Park, the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, and the Selous Game Reserve. Territorial Expansion of German East Africa 1890–1909 713, tried to carry out at the lowest possible cost. 2005. We repeat the estimations in Table 1 to see whether the degree of political organization of ethnic groups interfered with the effects of violent resistance and the territorial strategic value of a grid cell. For grid cells at the maximum value, this probability jumps to roughly 13.4 per cent. You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp! The Art of Not Being Governed: An Anarchist History of Upland Southeast Asia. Taxation by German authorities only commenced after the creation of a colonial station, and was generally constrained to an area within a two-day march from the station. It is thus not surprising that the colonial government invested heavily in producing accurate maps of its colonial territory. 1995. All papers are properly referenced. Stations were responsible for securing trade along the caravan routes, taxing the local population, administering forced labor and ensuring jurisdiction.76 Consequently, the spatio- temporal advancement of state expansion can be traced through the establishment of German stations.77 Hence, our first indicator measures the presence of a German station. 93 Gerring et al. The American Political Science Review 75 (4): 901–10. Pre- cipitation correlates at 0.85 and temperature at 0.9. To account for any remaining inaccuracies of these maps, or from the process of geo-referencing, we rely on a dataset with a comparably crude scale, namely 50 × 50 kilometer grid cells. Trotha, Trutz von. Hypothesis 1: Maximizing Territorial Coverage, The primary concern about territorial control suggests that geographic distances played an important role in shaping colonial decisions about costly investments in state presence and capacity. Natural Rubber: Biology, Cultivation and, Technology. Measuring state capacity using the tax-to-GDP ratio conflates extractive motives with issues of territorial control. 25 Tibebu 1995. Murdock, George P. 1967. Finally, since our goal is to understand the motives behind state expansion from the colonial government’s perspective, it is to some extent an advantage to rely on source material that reflects the information that was available at the time. We replicate our main analysis for two alternative, randomly drawn grid-cell configurations as well as grid cells of slightly smaller (40 × 40 km) and slightly larger (60 ×60 km) size, without affecting our main findings. Both aspirations would become reality, nurtured by a press replete with Kolonialfreunde (supporters of colonial acquisitions) and a myriad of geographical associations and colonial societies. To capture the Territorial Control Value of a location, we determine for each grid cell, without a station how valuable this location is with respect to the political goal of consolidating the colony’s overall territorial control. Die Klimatischen Bedingungen Für Die Siedlung von Nordeuropäern in Den Tropen. First we create a simple yearly count variable for all battles that took place within the grid cell. At Apia and the settlements Finschhafen, Simpsonhafen and the islands Neu-Pommern and Neu-Mecklenburg, trading companies newly fortified with credit began expansion into coastal landholding. 39 General Act of the Berlin Conference, Chapter 6, Article 35. We assigned the number of troops in the colonial forces stemming from the respective local ethnic groups. Hartleb, Erich. In order to exert pressure on the reluctant Bismarck, and to fulfill his desire for profit and fame, Peters undertook a series of expeditions throughout East Africa, during which he signed obscure treaties with what he assumed to be local authorities, which transferred their land to the company ‘for all times’.57 In the beginning of 1885, Bismarck caved in to Peters (who was threatening to seek support from Leopold II of Belgium instead) and to an increasingly imperialistic public, and officially legitimized DOAG’s territorial possessions in Africa. 71 Iliffe 1979; Koponen 1995. end of German colonial rule following Germany’s defeat in WWI, thereby barring us from investigating the consequences of these deliberations any further. Le Meur, Pierre-Yves. Secondly, the state-building project has limited ambitions. According to the introductory remarks by Kurt Freiherr von Schleinitz, commander of the German colonial forces from 1907–14, the book aims to provide ‘a picture of the colony as needed by soldiers in German East Africa’. 3:05. Fig. We also find that the integration of local ethnic groups into the German colonial military is associated with lower degrees of state penetration. German colonies comprised territory that makes up 22 countries today, mostly in Africa, including Nigeria, Ghana, and Uganda. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. Soifer, Hillel, and Matthias vom Hau. In essence, Bismarck’s colonial motives were obscure as he had said repeatedly “… I am no man for colonies.” However, in 1884 he consented to the acquisition of colonies by the German Empire to protect trade, safeguard raw materials and export markets, and take opportunities for capital investment, among other reasons. Herbst, Jeffrey. Banerjee, Abhijit, and Lakshmi Iyer. Authority Over Distance: Explaining Variation in State Infrastructural Power, in Latin America. The Autocratic Legacy of Early Statehood. Young, Crawford. Germany lost control of its colonial empire at the beginning of World War I when its colonies were seized by its enemies in the first weeks of the war. Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson 2001; Hariri 2012; Mahoney 2010. 2005. Colonial Rule and Political Development in Tanzania: The Case of the Makonde. How could this document be used to explain a driving force behind European imperialism in Africa? We begin by dividing the colony into six general regions along roughly equally sized east-west corridors. The Nature of German Imperialism: Conservation and the Politics of Wildlife in Colonial East Africa. Furthermore, missionary stations were far from homogeneous – displaying considerable variation in terms of location preferences, interaction with the local population and co-operation with the colonial government – which does not. In Africa in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, imperialism was present and growing. Verbrannte Erde. Read the introduction. As such, Germany’s colonial endeavor in Africa, like other imperial powers at the time, was motivated less by resource extraction and more by a desire for prestige and competition with other European powers, which led to a very specific scope of objectives in the colony, contrasting with other phases of European colonialism. Journal of Economic Growth 12 (3):185–234. Others who followed, especially Bernhard von Bülow as foreign minister and chancellor, sanctioned the acquisition of the Pacific Ocean colonies and provided substantial treasury assistance to existing protectorates to employ administrators, commercial agents, surveyors, local “peacekeepers,” and tax collectors. To determine which factors explain the patterns of German colonial state expansion, we now turn to a statistical analysis. The German Empire, a latecomer to the colonial game, only sought territorial possessions in the New Imperialism stage of colonialism.5 This period was characterized by European nations’ virtually insatiable hunger for territorial acquisitions overseas, as the result of a highly nationalistic environment demanding that nations solidify their international standing both internationally and domestically. Primarily in Damaraland, German settlers acquired land from the Herero to establish farms. stations. support@studenthomeworkhelp.com World prices and interaction terms vary over time. Look at the atlas pages posted in Canvas. Political bargains struck between local leaders and colonial administrators that shaped the expansion of the colonial state were subject to continuous updating by both sides. Germany did not actually profit from colonialism, since the expenses incurred in administration were grea… montgomery@giga-hamburg.de). There was continual resistance by the natives, most notably in 1903 when some of the Herero tribes rose in revolt and about 60 German settlers were killed. New York: Cambridge University Press. Occupying Syria Under the French Mandate: Insurgency, Space and State Formation, 1st Edition. 2011. Moreover, we have good reason to believe that the colonial maps provide comparably accurate geographical representations. Mahoney, James. German native military forces initially engaged in dozens of punitive expeditions to apprehend and punish freedom fighters, at times with British assistance. Guardians of Empire. The Scramble for Africa, also called the Partition of Africa, Conquest of Africa, or the Rape of Africa, was the invasion, occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during a short period known to historians as the New Imperialism (between 1881 and 1914). Classic state-building theories, especially in the colonial context, emphasize the fundamental role of structural factors – such as extractive activities, prior indigenous political centralization and the local disease environment – in shaping observable patterns of state expansion and consolidation. North, Douglass Cecil. In an attempt to control as much area as possible with the limited resources available, the, colonial state was constructed through the consecutive establishment of administrative and military posts, each headed by military officers or civilian station chiefs.65 German stations were in charge of carrying out all of the rudimentary functions of the colonial state: assuring order and stability, collecting taxes, and promoting the production and trade of agricultural products in which the Germans were interested.66, Given the limited availability of manpower and resources, establishing direct rule over the territory was deemed impossible. 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